What time quantum is the most efficient time quantum for the students in the university? Most answer from the students would be the 24 hours before deadline. On psychology, this situation could be explained by procrastination. A previous research showed that 52% of students who surveyed indicated having a medium – high need for help on procrastination and 80%–95% of university students engage in procrastination, in which 75% considering themselves procrastinators (Gallagher, 1992).

At the same time, the procrastination does not just take place in the social life. It would be bring into your social life after graduate. Previous research have prove that the procrastination get worse when students progress through university. What’s more, 65% of them desire to improve this aspect of their behavior (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984).

It is not difficult to see that the procrastination will reduce the quality of the assignment or the grade of the exam. Also, it will affect both psychological and physiological health. Procrastination is associated with higher anxiety, more health problem and with lower grades. Because of the disorder of the time management, the people will be more and more anxiety. Not only in the issues of anxiety. Low sense of self-worth and self-defeating mentality also play important role in the procrastination. These three are the psychological harms which coming from the procrastination. These can bring a lot of negative energy and emotion, such as low self-esteem and depression, to our daily lives. In the area of physiological, the internal clock will be broke out if student use the last 24 hours of the deadline, and more research are force on the role if the prefrontal cortex (Evans, 2007).

As the result, how to avoid of procrastination has become a big topic in the field of education. Previous study though that reason the base on the individual’s personality. However, researchers believe that motivation factors and other type of assignment/deadline play more important roles in the procrastination (Ariely & Wertenbrock, 2002).


Gallagher, Robert P.; Golin, Anine; Kelleher, Kathleen (1992). “The Personal, Career, and Learning Skills Needs of College Students”. Journal of College Student Development 33(4): 301–10.

Solomon,L.J.,& Rothblum, E.D. (1984). Academic Procrastination – Frequency and cognitive behavioural correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(4), 503-509.doi:10.1037//0022-0167.31.4.503

 Evans, James.(2007). Handbook of Neurofeedback: Dynamics and Clinical Applications. Psychology Press. p. 294.

 Ariely, D.,& Wertenbroch, K.(2002). Procrastination, deadlines, and performance: Self-control by precommitment. Psychological science, 13(3), 219-224. Doi:10.1111/1467-928000441

Majority of sports and sporting activities come with the risk of bodily injury. However, there are a number of sporting activities, which could lead to serious physical harm. These include paragliding, ab-sailing, rock-climbing, and bungee jumping (Allman et al, 2009). Perhaps the most famous and tragic sport fatalities was in Formula 1 on the 1st of May, 1994, in which three time world champion Ayrton Senna died during the Grand Prix in San Marino. At the time of the crash, he was doing 135 mph and died on impact (Buckley, 2012). Following his autopsy, it was concluded that his death could have been as a result of one of three injuries suffered by the driver during the crash.

In this blog, I will seek to explore the motivations of man to compete in sporting activities that are life threatening.

To begin with, extreme sport has become a popular phenomenon in the past two decades. This can be attributed to the significant and dramatic increase in coverage by the media and the increased interest of sponsors and advertisers. The aspect of mass marketing has led to the expansion of the demographic base that is interested in extreme leisure sport and activity (Kerr & Mackenzie, 2012). Kerr & Mackenzie highlight how important it is to understand the negative risks associated with participation in extreme sport, contending that they have now become popular activities for ordinary citizens during the weekend. It is obvious that most people, while acknowledging the danger of extreme sport, are not turned away by the danger (Brymer & Gray, 2010).

People are motivated to take part in extreme sport for several psychological reasons. One belief holds that particular individuals get their motivation to participate from pre-disposition, such as personality traits (Rhea & Scott, 2010; Hetland & Vittersø, 2012). These two research articles sought to measure the personalities of participants in rock climbing, which showed they had low levels of anxiety and preferred emotional and sensation seeking behavior. Thus, their research showed that certain individuals had potential personality trait pre-disposition to take part in extreme sport. Another motivating factor is the link between an individual’s self-efficacy and their participation in extreme sport (Brymer & Schweitzer, 2013). Brymer & Schweitzer’s research built on earlier research from Brymer (2009), which had concluded that successfully completing dangerous sports and activities had considerably pleasurable outcomes for those involved. This makes these individuals participate in extreme sport for their emotional satisfaction.

There is literature, however, that considers whether participants in extreme sports take part because of the risks involved or if they take part die to motivations that come from their attempts to manage prevalent risks to themselves (Brymer & Oades, 2009). Brymer & Oades hypothesize that, through being part of extreme sport, these individuals want to improve their self-control. By being part of extreme sport, they are able allow for increased control of themselves in normal life. This, again, is a potential motive for individuals who take part in a dangerous sport.

Motivation to take part in extreme sport could also be explained by the prospective theory. Dean (2012) postulated this theory; they suggested that when individuals are involved in making choices and evaluating outcomes that are uncertain, they take consequence and probability information into consideration. This theory’s fundamental assumption is that when individuals are involved in an emotional struggle, they seek out behavior that involves more risk. This is in comparison to avoidance of risky behavior and indulgence when individuals are not involved in any emotionally straining struggles (Brymer, 2010). The prospective theory is applicable as a motive to be involved in extreme sporting activity since the individuals feel they are at their lowest point emotionally. In this case, they feel that the extreme sport will enable them to improve their life outlook. The potential of the experience to be emotionally pleasurable assumed by extreme sport participants will improve their emotions and life in general, which motivates them to take part.

Throughout the writing of this blog, I have given the diverse reasons that potentially lead to individuals taking part in extreme sport. The blog has sought to do that by linking the outcomes of taking part in extreme sport, self-efficacy, and prospective theory. The motivations that individuals have to take part in extreme sport vary according to the individual. For this reason, using any of these reasons to explain why a particular individual takes part in extreme sport would lead to inconclusive results. Just as man is unique, so is the motivation why they partake in extreme sport.





Allman, T. L., Mittelstaedt, R. D., Martin, B., & Goldenberg, M. (2009). Exploring the Motivations of BASE Jumpers: Extreme Sport Enthusiasts. Journal of Sport & Tourism , 14 (4), 229-247.

Brymer, E. (2009). Extreme Sports as a facilitator of ecocentricity and positive life changes. World Leisure Journal , 51 (1), 47-53.

Brymer, E. (2010). Risk taking in Extreme Sports: A phenomenological perspective. Annals of Leisure Research , 13 (1-2), 218-238.

Brymer, E. & Gray, T. (2010). Developing an intimate “relationship” with nature through extreme sports participation. Leisure/Loisir , 34 (4), 361-375.

Brymer, E. & Oades, L.G. (2009). Extreme Sports: A Positive Transformation in Courage and Humility. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 49 (1), 114-126.

Buckley, R. (2012). Rush as a key motivation in skilled adventure tourism: Resolving the risk recreation paradox. Tourism Management , 33 (4), 961–970.

Burger, B., Saarikallio, S., Luck, G., Thompson, M. R., & Toiviainen, P. (2013). Relationships Between Perceived Emotions in Music and Music-induced Movement. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal , 30 (5 ), 517-533.

Dean, D. H. (2012). Self-control and perceived physical risk in an extreme sport . Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers , 13 (1), 62-73.

Hetland, A. & Vittersø, J. (2012). The feelings of extreme risk: exploring emotional quality and variability in skydiving and BASE jumping. Journal of Sport Behavior , 35 (2), 154-180.

Kerr, J. H. & Mackenzie, S. H. (2012). Multiple motives for participating in adventure sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise , 13 (5), 649–657.

Rhea, Deborah. J. & Scott, Martin. (2010). Personality Trait Differences of Traditional Sport Athletes, Bullriders, and Other Alternative Sport Athletes, International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching 5 (1), 75-86.

Motivation is related to factors that act as gears for human behavior. It determines the pattern of human behavior and the results that occur from such behavior. It is the “force that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior” (Schmidt, 2007). Elements that motivate people depend mostly on their psychological and social needs as well as their situational context. Unlike motivation which can be clearly defined as a process by which to induce people to think and act in a positive manner, emotions are more imprecise by nature. This is mostly because what people feel and what they express are not always identical (Gorman, 2003).

Emotions are closely related to motivation and play an important role in energizing, directing and sustaining human behavior. Negative emotions like guilt can energize people to change their behavioral pattern that will eliminate the guilt. As for direction of behavior, an individual chooses specific activities after considering its positive elements and judging other alternatives. Emotional state of a person also induces him to sustain his activity like if he enjoys a party then he may stay longer even with prior commitments early next day (Schmidt, 2007). The basic difference between motivation and emotion is that the former tells an individual what should be done, and the latter tells the individual what should have been done (Balkenius, 1995).

Emotions have a strong impact on all activities of an individual in a workplace. Unlike traditional thinking which says only cognition which means conscious reasoning influences a person’s decisions and attitudes, modern neuroscience has proven that emotions too play a major part in organizational behavior of an employee (McShane & Glinow, 2006). The satisfaction that a person derives from job depends on the emotional experiences in the workplace. For instance, people who derive positive emotions in workplace tend to develop favorable approach towards their performance resulting in increasing their level of performance which in turn means rewards and promotions. These are the things that most employees are always looking for since these will help them attain whatever goals they have set for themselves.

In business enterprises, management often uses the behaviorist theory of operant conditioning to motivate employees. Promotions and rewards for excellent performance no doubt motivate people to give their best, but their positive impact is more in the short run than the long run. This is because in the long run, rewards will instill competitive environment among employees and they “destroy intrinsic motivation by reducing work to an economic transaction” (Strickler, 2006). Research has proven that it is communication and frequent meetings between employees and management that act as motivational drivers for better performance (Aini Y. et al., 2012, p.240). According to one research, goal setting can be a strong motivational factor for employees as it can improve average performance by 16 percent, and when monetary rewards are attached to goal setting, then average performance can be enhanced by more than 40 percent (Lumenburg & Ornstein, 2007).

In conclusion, it can be said that lack of motivation can cause emotional stress for employees resulting in poor performance. Employees with strong motivation will response more to the organization’s goals, and will work with integrity towards the attainment of those goals.


Schmidt, C.T., (2007). Affective Motivation & Emotional Competency. [online] Retrieved on November 19, 2013 from: <http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/scholl/webnotes/Motivation_Affective.htm>

Gorman, P., (2003). Motivation and Emotion. NY: Routledge

Balkenius, C., (1995). Natural Intelligence in Artificial Creatures. LundUniv.

McShane, S.L. & M.A. Van Glinow, (2006). Organizational Behavior. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education

Strickler, J. (2006). What really motivates people? Journal for Quality & Participation, 29(1), pp.26-28

Aini Y., M. et al., (2012). Work Motivation among Malaysian Public Servants. Asian Social Science, 8(12), pp.238-242

Lumenburg, F.C. & A.C. Ornstein, (2007). Emotional Administration: Concepts and Practices. Cengage Learning

Good health and long life are just two (2) of the motivators for dietary changes. Margetts et al (1998) found that the prevention of chronic diseases was cited as the key factor influencing eating patterns. The consensus is that diets which include a variety of foods; are rich in fruits and vegetables; and are low on fat will help to reduce the risk of individuals being affected by chronic diseases (US Department of Agriculture 2000). Despite this consensus there are still people who are not motivated to change their diets. Lack of consensus among experts on what constitutes good food is just one of the reasons (Margetts et al 1998). Additionally, some chronic diseases described as lifestyle diseases are said to be hereditary. They result from polygenic disorders caused by the influence of multiple genes and include diabetes, breast cancer, coronary heart diseases, obesity and autoimmune diseases (Buzzle 2011). Consumption of fruits and vegetables may not be beneficial due to the loss of nutritional values during storage and or transportation from the producer to the consumer (Cole 1956). Despite, a greater understanding of this problem little attention is being paid as adequate knowledge about nutrition is lacking.

If all the reasons mentioned are true, how can researchers and proponents of lifestyle changes convince and motivate the naysayers to change their lifestyles? Most people who currently smoke do not eat healthy (Margetts et al 1998), and people who smoke are more likely to get lung cancer than those who do not (Curtis 1955). However, there are many non-smokers who get lung cancer and many smokers who do not. So, how else can people be motivated to eat healthy? Cole (1956) points out that when ‘healthy’ foods are eaten in the quantities required for optimal health; the result is a feeling of well-being.’

Chronic diseases are not the only motivator of dietary changes. A common problem is that teenagers are dissatisfied with their body image (Hill 2006). Dieting is frequently used as a means of intentional self transformation and as many as 40% of American women and 20% of American men are trying to lose weight to facilitate this process (Federal Change Commission 1997). It is also seen as a key motivator in this regard (Blaine and McElroy 2002; Torrens 1998). Despite a few positive results, they are far from what the media suggests (Bordo 1993).

Emotionally disturbed and obese individuals would definitely be motivated by the promise of losing weight. In fact, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory suggests that individuals seek to fulfil their basic needs before they move to satisfy higher level needs. They want to feel good about themselves and therefore are motivated by the possibility of improving their self image. This is suggestive of the need for love and belonging which is ranked higher than health and well-being. However, before feeling a sense of well-being people need to feel good about self and not fear being shunned. Belongingness falls in the category of safety and security on Maslow’s hierarchy. Though one would be led to believe that health and well-being is about healthy living, it might be just a sense of personal worth and satisfaction.

Statistics on the lifestyle profile of people affected by chronic diseases are used in motivating indivduals to adopt healthy lifestyles. But how is this possible when there is disagreement on whether there is a cause and effect relationship between tobacco smoking and lung cancer (Curtis 1955; Cornfield et al 2009). A number of reasons have been given for the suspected association between both. One of them is that changes in the rate of tobacco smoking follows a similar trend to that of death from lung cancer – a trend identified in Europe and the United States (Cornfield et al 2009; Doll 1953). However, this is not sufficient evidence as there are other contributing factors. In addition to maintaining a healthy diet, weight management, and not smoking, the other factors that can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases include physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol (Ford et al 2009; US Department of Agriculture 2000).


Blaine, B and McElroy, J. (2002). Selling Stereotypes: Weight Loss Infomercials, Sexism, and Weightism. Sex Roles, 46, p. 351 – 357

Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press

Coles, J.V. (1956). Discussion: Major Current Problems in Nutrition Research. Journal of Farm Economics, 38(5), p. 1762 – 1765

Cornfield, J., Haenszel, W., Hammond, C., Lilienfeld, A.M., Shimkin, M.B and Wynder, E.L. (2009). Smoking and lung cancer: recent    evidence and a discussion of some questions. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, p. 1175–1191

Cutler, S.J. (1955). A Review of the Statistical Evidence on the Association Between Smoking and Lung Cancer. Journal of American Statistical Association, 50(270), p. 267 – 282

Doll, R. (1953). Bronchial Carcinoma: incidence and aetiology. British Medical Journal, 2, p. 521 – 527 and 585 – 590

Federal Trade Commission. (1997). Commercial Weight Loss Products and Programs: What Consumers Stand to Gain and Lose. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission

Ford, E.S., Bergmann, M.M., Kroger, J., Schienkiewitz, A., Wekert, C and Boeing, H. (2009). Healthy Living is the Best Revenge. Arch Intern Med, 169(15), p. 1345 – 1362

Hill, A.J. (2006). Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65(4), p. 376 – 384

Margetts, B.M., Thompson, R.L., Speller, V and McVey, D. (1998). Factors which influence ‘healthy’ eating patterns: results from the 1993 Health Education Authority health and lifestyle survey in England. Public Health Nutrition, 1(3), p. 193 – 198

Torrens, K.M. (1998). I can Get Any Job I Want and Feel Like Butterfly! Symbolic Violence in the TV Advertising of Jenny Crag. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 22, p. 27 – 47.

US Department of Agriculture. (2000). Nutrition and your health. [Online] Retrieved from http://origin.www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/DietaryGuidelines/2000/2000DGProfessionalBooklet.pdf.

learn sadness

Childhood is a very important timing for our formation of our character. This point view is very extensive to spread. A lot of reasons of our behaviors when we grow up can be found in the childhood. Sometimes, we called it as the shadow of the childhood or the wish that haven’t come true.


The psychologist told us a very interesting story. Scott graduated from a famous law school with high grade. However, from then on, he never went back home. He becomes a drug trafficker in Spain. Because his father forced him to learn law which he really didn’t like. He said no to father’s will. What’s more, his father just wanted to realize dream of himself in his childhood. That’s ironic like a curse.


In that case, we can find some information in Gestalt psychology. Gestalt psychology or Gestaltism is a theory of mind and brain of the Berlin School; the operational principle of Gestalt psychology is that the brain is holistic, parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies.


 ‘All emotions have adaptive benefits.’ Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

Thus, the best way to deal with the problem is that learn to forgive, learn to put the past down, learn sadness. Sadness is very powerful and magical just like the time. As we all know, positive emotions can signal that “everything is well”, it can build the best things in life and make people’s live fufilling, such as happy and exciting. As the same time, negative emotions signal that there was something not well, which we are falling short of some important goals (Frijda, 1988). The old saying goes, what does not kill me makes me stronger. The positive emotions, just like sadness, is not a simply quest for happiness (Forgas, 2007). The sadness can help you realize who you are, what do you want and what you want to do. That’s was very important.




Forgas, J.P. (2007). When sad is better than happy: Negative affect can improve the quality and effectiveness of persuasive messages and social influence strategies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 513-528.

For the history of universe, human beings are tiny and ignorant. We believed the classical mechanics was the rule of the space until Einstein found out the theory of relativity. Tens of thousands of scientists tried to explore the theory which can overcome the theory of relativity. Unfortunately, all of them were failed. One of the most significant reasons was that they can’t measure the date in the condition of over the light speed. Thus, to the scientists, they can not measure anything. Similarly, psychologists also can not measure everything, because the mind of people is mysterious and unlimited. In this case, the mind just likes the universe.


Psychologists can control every condition in their experiments but the mind of participants. A great number of factors belonging to participants can affect the result of the study, such as attitude and attention. A lot of psychologists, such as Blackmore (1982) and Blanke et al(2002), were interested in the out of body experiences. They tried to explore whether the fillings is real. However, at the end of the story, they found it is very difficult to measure the date of their participants.


In the same time, psychologists are doing their best to defeat or weaken the different kind of effects from participants. Hawthorne effect found the factor that participants can be affected when they found they were being watched. Anyway, there is something can not be measured by psychologists.

Several years ago, we took about face-lifting as a kind of gossip. We knew Michael Jackson make himself from black to white with a lot of face-lifting. However, the inevitable demand of times never stops. Nowadays, the face-lifting break into our daily lives. Various colorful shows and magazine is filled with our daily lives. We compare ourselves with the airbrushed images in advertisements and magazines, which confirm our worst fears. We realized that face-lifting no longer is the privilege of the famous. So, the clash of value breaks out in the train of this situation.


To be honest, we are a culture more sexualized than ever. The advertisement leads us that running to stand still: taught that good looks are no longer a gift but a ceaseless pursuit. Than, we found that the beauty can help you make more money at work indirectly, especially for female. Whether we can regard the face-lifting as a kind of investment? Just like style design even like education. In “Beauty Pays”, Daniel Hamermesh (2011) reckons that, over a lifetime and assuming today’s mean wages, a handsome worker in America might on average make $230,000 more than a very plain one. There is evidence that attractive workers bring in more business, so it often makes sense for firms to hire them. However, whether the aesthetic standard of nowadays is twisty? Only time can give us the answer.


Every coin has two sides, nucleus bring a now power and the weapon to destroy human beings at the same time. Face-lifting can help the patients who have wound on face retrieve the confidence of life. But it is also a way to cheat the law for criminal by change their looks.





Daniel Hamermesh (2011). Beauty Pays: why attractive people are more successful. Princeton University Press.